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Bat Flight Visualization

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bat1.jpg pic2

When bats fly, their wings undergo large amplitude motions and deformations. As a consequence, simulating and visualizing the way air flows around the bat is extremely complex, and biologists have yet to gain a full understanding of the aerodynamics and mechanics of bat flight. We present a method for simulating and visualizing air flow around a static bat wing geometry in the three-dimensional, immersive CAVE environment. This demonstration serves as proof-of-concept for simulating air flow around a time-varying geometry in order to understand the aerodynamic principles behind bat flight. By understanding the mechanics of bat flight, we hope to make discoveries in areas such as biomechanics and aerodynamics









[Keefe and Laidlaw, 2013]
Daniel Keefe and David H. Laidlaw. Virtual Reality Data Visualization for Team-Based STEAM Education: Tools, Methods, and Lessons Learned. In Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Systems and Applications, pages 179-187. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. (bibtex: Keefe-2013-VRD).


[Li et al., 2011]
Guangxia Li, Andrew C. Bragdon, Zhigeng Pan, Mingmin Zhang, Sharon Swartz, David H. Laidlaw, Chaoyang Zhang, Hanyu Liu, and Jian Chen. VisBubbles: a workflow-driven framework for scientific data analysis of time-varying biological datasets, 2011. (pdf) (bibtex: Li-2011-VWF).
[Xu et al., 2011]
Liming Xu, Jeremy Lyle, Yubao Wu, Zhigeng Pan, Mingmin Zhang, David H. Laidlaw, Robert L. Hester, and Jian Chen. HumMod explorer: a multi-scale time-varying human modeling navigator, 2011. (bibtex: Xu-2011-HEM).


[Chen et al., 2010]
Jian Chen, Daniel K. Riskin, Tatjana Y. Hubel, David Willis, Arnold Song, Hanyu Liu, Kenneth Breuer, Sharon Swartz, and David H. Laidlaw. Exploration of Bat Wing Morphology Through A Strip Method and Visualization. In SIGGRAPH (talk), 2010. (pdf) (bibtex: Chen-2010-STI).


[Kostandov et al., 2009]
Mykhaylo Kostandov, Jian Chen, Igor Pivkin, Daniel K. Riskin, Dave Willis, Sharon Swartz, and David H. Laidlaw. Visual Analysis of Dimensionality Reduction in an Interactive Virtual Environment for Exploring Bat Flight Kinematics. In Proceedings of the Joint Virtual Reality Conference of EGVE-ICAT-EuroVR, 2009. In Press (pdf) (bibtex: Chen-2009-POD).


[Keefe et al., 2008]
Daniel Keefe, Daniel Acevedo, Jadrian Miles, Fritz Drury, Sharon Swartz, and David H. Laidlaw. Scientific Sketching for Collaborative VR Visualization Design. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, 14(4):835-847, July-August 2008. (pdf) (bibtex: Keefe-2008-SSF).
[Kostandov et al., 2008]
Mykhaylo Kostandov, Jian Chen, Igor Pivkin, Sharon Swartz, and David H. Laidlaw. Exploring Dimensionality Reduction of Animal Flight Kinematics in an Interactive Virtual Reality Setting. ACM I3D Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games, Posters Program, February 2008. (pdf) (bibtex: Kostandov-2008-EDR).


[Chen et al., 2007]
Jian Chen, Victoria Interrante, William Ribarsky, and David H. Laidlaw. Getting Human-Centered Computing and Scientific Visualization Married: the Myth and Critical issues. IEEE Visualization Panel, Oct 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Chen-2007-HVP).
[Keefe, 2007]
Daniel Keefe. Interactive 3D Drawing for Free-Form Modeling in Scientific Visualization and Art: Tools, Methodologies, and Theoretical Foundations. PhD thesis, Brown University, 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Keefe-2007-I3D).
[Keefe, 2007]
Daniel Keefe. PhD Defense Talk. Brown University, 2007. Unpublished (pdf) (bibtex: Keefe-2007-DEF).
[Willis et al., 2007]
David J. Willis, Mykhaylo Kostandov, Daniel K. Riskin, Jaime Peraire, David H. Laidlaw, Sharon Swartz, and Kenneth S. Breuer. Modeling the Flight of a Bat. Science Magazine. 2007 Visualization Challenge Winner. Informational Graphics., 317:1860, September 2007. (bibtex: Willis-2007-MFB).


[Kostandov et al., 2006]
Mykhaylo Kostandov, Igor Pivkin, Kenneth Breuer, Sharon Swartz, and David H. Laidlaw. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Particle Image Velocimetry in Bat Flight. IEEE Visualization 2006 Poster Compendium, November 2006. (pdf) (bibtex: Kostandov-2006-POD).


[Laidlaw, 2005]
David H. Laidlaw. Nugget for NSF: Collaborating with Artists and Scientists to Create Scientific Visualizations of Bat Flight. Submitted to NSF Graphics/Visualization Program. Nugget ID 11396, 2005. (pdf) (bibtex: Laidlaw-2005-CAS).
[Pivkin et al., 2005]
Igor Pivkin, Eduardo Hueso, Rachel Weinstein, David H. Laidlaw, Sharon Swartz, and George Karniadakis. Simulation and Visualization of Air Flow Around Bat Wings During Flight. In Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Science, pages 689-694, 2005. (pdf) (bibtex: Pivkin-2005-SVA).


[Hueso et al., 2004]
Eduardo Hueso, Igor Pivkin, Sharon Swartz, David H. Laidlaw, George Karniadakis, and Kenneth Breuer. Visualization of Vortices in Simulated Airflow around Bat Wings During Flight. IEEE Visualization 2004 Poster Compendium, October 2004. (pdf) (ppz) (zip) (bibtex: Hueso-2004-VVS).
[Swartz et al., 2004]
Sharon Swartz, Kristin Bishop, Igor Pivkin, George Karniadakis, David H. Laidlaw, Eileen Vote, and Daniel Keefe. 3D Kinematics of Flying Bats: Challenges of Complex Multidimensional Comparison. In Seventh International Congress on Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, Florida, 2004. (bibtex: Swartz-2004-3DK).
[Weinstein et al., 2004]
Rachel Weinstein, Eduardo Hueso, Igor Pivkin, Sharon Swartz, David H. Laidlaw, George Karniadakis, and Kenneth Breuer. Simulation and Visualization of Flow Around Bat Wings During Flight. ACM SIGGRAPH 2004 Poster Compendium, August 2004. (pdf) (bibtex: Weinstein-2004-SVF).


[Hueso, 2003]
Eduardo Hueso. Visualizing Vortices in Simulated Air Flow around Bat Wings during Flight. Technical Report CS-03-25, Master's Project, Computer Science Department, Brown University, Providence, RI, December 2003. (pdf) (bibtex: Hueso-2003-VVS).


[Weinstein et al., 2002]
Rachel Weinstein, Igor Pivkin, Sharon Swartz, David H. Laidlaw, George Karniadakis, and Kenneth Breuer. Simulation and Visualization of Air Flow Around Bat Wings During Flight. Technical Report CS-02-16, Brown University Computer Science Department, August 2002. (pdf) (bibtex: Weinstein-2002-SAV).

Collaborator's Publications


[Dumon and Swartz, 2006]
E.L. Dumon and Sharon Swartz. Biomechanical Approaches and Ecological Research. In Ecological and Behavioral Methods for the Study of Bats. Johns Hopkins university Press, 2006. In Press (bibtex: Dumont-2006-BAE).
[Galvao et al., 2006]
R. Galvao, E. Israeli, A. Song, X. Tian, K. Bishop, Sharon Swartz, and Kenneth Breuer. The Aerodynamics of Compliant Membrane Wings Modeled on Mammalian Flight Mechanics. In Proceedings of 36th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, June 2006. (bibtex: Galvao-2006-ACM).
[Tian et al., 2006]
X. Tian, J. Iriarte, K. Middleton, R. Galvao, E. Israeli, A. Roemer, A. Sullivan, A. Song, Sharon Swartz, and Kenneth Breuer. Direct Measurements of the Kinematics and Dynamics of Bat Flight. In Proceedings of 36th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, June 2006. (bibtex: Tian-2006-DMK).


[Siclen, 2004]
Bill Van Siclen. Not your typical new magazine: Brown University s Chaise is printed on a DVD disc. Providence Journal Arts Section, February 2004. (pdf) (bibtex: Siclen-2004-NYT).
[Swartz et al., 2004]
Sharon Swartz, K. Bishop, and M.F. Ismael-Aguirre. Dynamic complexity of wing form in bats: implications for flight performance. In Functional and evolutionary ecology of bats. Oxford Press, 2004. (bibtex: Swartz-2004-DCW).


[Swartz et al., 2003]
Sharon Swartz, P. Freeman, and E. Stockwell. Ecomorphology. In Bat Ecology, pages 257-300. The University of Chicago Press, 2003. (bibtex: Swartz-2003-ECO).


[Xiu and Karniadakis, 2002]
D. Xiu and George Karniadakis. The Wiener-Askey polynomial chaos for stochastic. SIAM Journal of Scientific Computation, 24(2):619-644, 2002. (bibtex: Xiu-2002-WAP).


[Watts et al., 2001]
P. Watts, E. J. Mitchell, and Sharon Swartz. A computer model for estimating mechanics and energetics of horizontal flapping flight in large bats: Model description, computation, and sensitivity analysis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 204:2873-2898, 2001. (bibtex: Watts-2001-CME).

Other Bibliography


[Grey, 2007]
Jen Grey. Daniel Keefe, Cavepainter. ACM SIGGRAPH Arts, October 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Grey-2007-DKC).
[Piquepaille, 2007]
Roland Piquepaille. Drawing on Air with Haptics in 3D., September 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Piquepaille-2007-DAH).
[Staedter, 2007]
Tracy Staedter. New Tech Lets You Draw in the Air. Discovery News, October 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Staedter-2007-NTL).
[Taygun, 2007]
Haydar Taygun. CSers develop new 3D design tool. Brown Daily Herald, October 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Taygun-2007-CDN).
[Zyga, 2007]
Zyga. Artists draw on air to create 3D illustrations. Online magazine, 2007. (pdf) (bibtex: Zyga-2007-ADA).


[Hedenstrom et al., 2006]
A. Hedenstrom, M. Rosen, and G. R. Spedding. Vortex wakes generated by robins Erithacus rubecula during free flight in a wind tunnel. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, 3(7):263-276, April 2006. (bibtex: Hedenstrom-2006-VWG).
[Spedding and McArthur, 2006]
G. R. Spedding and J. McArthur. Deducing Aerodynamic Mechanisms from Near- and Far-Wake Measurements of Fixed and Flapping Wings at Moderate Reynolds Number. In Proceedings of the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 2006. AIAA. (bibtex: Spedding-2006-DAM).


[Wilkinson et al., 2005]
Mathew T. Wilkinson, David M. Unwin, and Charles P. Ellington. High Lift function of the Pteroid Bone and Forewing of Pterosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Online, 2005. (pdf) (bibtex: Wilkinson-2005-HLF).


[Fischer and Swartz, 2004]
I.M. Fischer and Sharon Swartz. How fat bats fly: Energetic and structural consequences for bats flying under increased load. Functional Ecology, 2004. In Review (bibtex: Fischer-2004-HFB).
[Huber and Swartz, 2004]
M.H. Huber and Sharon Swartz. Wings of springs: Structure, function and energetics of bat finger bones. Unpublished (bibtex: Huber-2004-WSS), 2004.
[Laidlaw et al., 2004]
David Laidlaw, Sharon Swartz, George Karniadakis, and Peter Richardson. Understanding Unsteady Bioflows through Simulation, Modeling, Visualization, Art, and Psychology. NSF-ITR grant proposal, 2004. (pdf) (bibtex: Laidlaw-2004-UUB).
[Samimy et al., 2004]
M. Samimy, K.S. Breuer, L.G. Leal, and P.H. Steen. A Gallery of Fluid Motion. Cambridge University Press, January 2004. (bibtex: Samimy-2004-GFM).
[Skene and Swartz, 2004]
J.A. Skene and Sharon Swartz. The mechanical and energetic role of the wing membrane in bat flight. Unpublished (bibtex: Skene-2004-MER), 2004.
[Spedding et al., 2004]
G. R. Spedding, M. Rosen, A. Hedenstrom, and J. McArthur. Force Measurements and Flow Structure for Fixed and Flapping Wings at Low Reynolds Number. In Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, Notre Dame, Indiana, August 2004. (bibtex: Spedding-2004-FMF).
[Swartz, 2004]
Sharon Swartz. Computational estimation of skeletal stresses and joint forces in flying bats: implications for origin and diversification of the bat skeleton. Unpublished (bibtex: Swartz-2004-CES), 2004.
[Swartz and Gilbert, 2004]
Sharon Swartz and S. M. Gilbert. The structural geometry of bat wing bones and the risk of buckling failure. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2004. In Review (bibtex: Swartz-2004-SGB).


[Jiang et al., 2003]
Ming Jiang, Raghu Machiraju, and David Thompson. Detection and Visualization of Vortices. In Visualization Handbook. Academic Press, 2003. Unpublished (pdf) (bibtex: Jiang-2003-DAV).
[Spedding et al., 2003]
G.R. Spedding, A. Hedenstrom, and M. Rosen. Quantitative studies of the wakes of freely flying birds in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. Experiments in Fluids, 34(2):291-303, 2003. (bibtex: Spedding-2003-QSW).
[Theisel and Seidel, 2003]
H. Theisel and H.-P. Seidel. Feature Flow Fields. In Joint EUROGRAPHICS—IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, 2003. (pdf) (bibtex: Theisel-2003-FFF).
[Tobalske et al., 2003]
B.W. Tobalske, T.L. Hedrick, K.P. Dial, and A.A. Biewener. Comparative power curves in bird flight. Nature, 421:363-366, 2003. (bibtex: Tobalske-2003-CPC).


[Hedrick et al., 2002]
T.L. Hedrick, B.W. Tobalske, and A.A. Biewener. Estimates of circulation and gait change based on a three-dimensional kinematic analysis of flight in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ringed turtle doves (Streptopelia risoria). Journal of Experimental Biology, 205:1389-1409, 2002. (bibtex: Hedrick-2002-ECG).
[Jiang et al., 2002]
Ming Jiang, Raghu Machiraju, and David Thompson. A Novel Approach To Vortex Core Region Detection. In Eurographics—IEEE TCVG Symposium on Visualization, 2002. (pdf) (bibtex: Jiang-2002-ANA).
[Jiang et al., 2002]
Ming Jiang, Raghu Machiraju, and David Thompson. Geometric verification of swirling features in flow fields. In Proceedings of the conference on Visualization, pages 307-314, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2002. ITCVG, IEEE Press. (pdf) (bibtex: Jiang-2002-GVS).
[Mann and Rockwood, 2002]
Stephen Mann and Alyn Rockwood. Computing Singularities of 3D Vector Fields with Geometric Algebra. In VIS. IEEE, 2002. (pdf) (bibtex: Mann-2002-CSO).
[Teeling, 2002]
E.C. Teeling. Microbat paraphyly and the convergent evolution of a key innovation in Old World rhinolophoid microbats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(3):1431-1436, 2002. (bibtex: Teeling-2002-MPC).


[Murphy, 2001]
W.J. Murphy. Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics. Science, 294(5550):2348-2351, 2001. (bibtex: Murphy-2001-REP).
[Rayner et al., 2001]
J.M.V. Rayner, P.W. Viscardi, S. Ward, and J.R. Speakman. Aerodynamics and energetics of intermittent flight in birds. American Zoologist, 41:188-204, 2001. (bibtex: Rayner-2001-AEI).
[Spedding and Pennycuick, 2001]
G. R. Spedding and C.J. Pennycuick. Uncertainty calculations for theoretical flight power curves. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 208(2):127-139, 2001. (bibtex: Spedding-2001-UCT).
[Springer, 2001]
M.S. Springer. Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(11):6241-6246, 2001. (bibtex: Springer-2001-IFM).
[Stockwell, 2001]
E.F. Stockwell. Morphology and flight manoeuvrability in New World leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae). Journal of Zoology, 254:505-514, 2001. (bibtex: Stockwell-2001-MFM).


[Breuer et al., 2000]
K.S. Breuer, J.R. Koseff, K. Powell, and C. Robertson. Multimedia Fluid Mechanics. Cambridge University Press, CD-ROM edition, January 2000. (bibtex: Breuer-2000-MFM).
[Dudley, 2000]
R. Dudley. The biomechanics of insect flight: form, function, evolution. Princeton University Press, 2000. (bibtex: Dudley-2000-BIF).
[Marusic et al., 2000]
Ivan Marusic, Graham Candler, Victoria Interrante, M. Pino Martin, Pramod Subbareddy, and Alin Moss. Detection and Tracking of Coherent Features in a Mach 4 Turbulent Boundary Layer. In American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Papers, pages 2000-2414, June 2000. (pdf) (bibtex: Marusic-2000-DTC).
[Teeling, 2000]
E.C. Teeling. Molecular evidence regarding the origin of echolocation and flight in bats. Nature, 403(6766):188-192, 2000. (bibtex: Teeling-2000-MER).
[Tobalske, 2000]
B.W. Tobalske. Biomechanics and physiology of gait selection in flying birds. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 73(6):736-750, 2000. (bibtex: Tobalske-2000-BPG).


[Batra and Hesselink, 1999]
Rajesh Batra and Lambertus Hesselink. Feature Comparison of 3-D Vector Fields Using Earth Mover's Distance. In IEEE Visualization, pages 105-111, 1999. (pdf) (bibtex: Batra-1999-FCO).
[Dickinson et al., 1999]
M. H. Dickinson, F.O. Lehmann, and S.P. Sane. Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight. Science, 284(5422):1954-1960, 1999. (bibtex: Dickinson-1999-WRA).
[Ellington, 1999]
C.P. Ellington. The novel aerodynamics of insect flight: Applications to micro-air vehicles. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202(23):3439-3448, 1999. (bibtex: Ellington-1999-NAI).
[Rayner, 1999]
J.M.V. Rayner. Estimating power curves of flying vertebrates. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202(23):3449-3461, 1999. (bibtex: Rayner-1999-EPC).
[Tobalske et al., 1999]
B.W. Tobalske, W.L. Peacock, and K.P. Dial. Kinematics of flap-bounding flight in the zebra finch over a wide range of speeds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 202(13):1725-1739, 1999. (bibtex: Tobalske-1999-KFB).
[Voigt and Winter, 1999]
C.C. Voigt and Y. Winter. Energetic cost of hovering flight in nectar-feeding bats (Phyllostomidae : Glossophaginae) and its scaling in moths, birds and bats. Journal of Comparative Physiology B-Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology, 169(1):38-48, 1999. (bibtex: Voigt-1999-ECH).


[Muller et al., 1998]
Kai Muller, Ulrich Rist, and Siegfried Wagner. Enhanced Visualization of Late-Stage Transitional Structures using Vortex Identification and Automatic Feature Extraction. In Computational Fluid Dynamics, pages 786—791. John Wiley & Sons, 1998. (ps) (bibtex: Muller-1998-EVO).
[Spedding and Lissaman, 1998]
G.R. Spedding and P.B.S. Lissaman. Technical aspects of microscale flight systems. Journal of Avian Biology, 29(4):458-468, 1998. (bibtex: Spedding-1998-TAM).
[Swartz, 1998]
Sharon Swartz. Skin and bones: the mechanical properties of bat wing tissues . In Bats: Phylogeny, Morphology, Echolocation, and Conservation Biology, pages 109-126. Smithsonian Inst. Press, 1998. (bibtex: Swartz-1998-SBM).
[Winter et al., 1998]
Y. Winter, C. Voigt, and O. Von Helversen. Gas exchange during hovering flight in a nectar-feeding bat Glossophaga soricina. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201(2):237-244, 1998. (bibtex: Winter-1998-GEH).


[Portela, 1997]
L. M. Portela. The Vortex Concept and its Identification in Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows. In Proceedings of IUTAM Symposium on Simulation and Identification of Organized Structures in Flows, pages 249-258, 1997. (pdf) (bibtex: Portela-1997-VCI).
[Willmott et al., 1997]
A.P. Willmott, C.P. Ellington, and A.L.R. Thomas. Flow visualization and unsteady aerodynamics in the flight of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 352(1351):303-316, 1997. (bibtex: Willmott-1997-FVU).
[Willmott and Ellington, 1997]
A.P. Willmott and C.P. Ellington. The mechanics of flight in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta .1. Kinematics of hovering and forward flight. Journal of Experimental Biology, 200(21):2705-2722, 1997. (bibtex: Willmott-1997-MFH).


[Dickinson, 1996]
M.H. Dickinson. Unsteady mechanisms of force generation in aquatic and aerial locomotion. American Zoologist, 36(6):537-554, 1996. (bibtex: Dickinson-1996-UMF).
[Ellington, 1996]
C. P. Ellington. Leading-edge vortices in insect flight. Nature, 384(6610):626-630, 1996. (bibtex: Ellington-1996-LEV).
[Tobalske and Dial, 1996]
B.W. Tobalske and K.P. Dial. Flight kinematics of black-billed magpies and pigeons over a wide range of speeds. Journal of Experimental Biology, 199(2):263-280, 1996. (bibtex: Tobalske-1996-FKB).


[Dickinson and Gotz, 1993]
M. H. Dickinson and K.G. Gotz. nsteady Aerodynamic Performance of Model Wings at Low Reynolds-Numbers. Journal of Experimental Biology, 174:45-64, 1993. (bibtex: Dickinson-1993-UAP).


[Spedding, 1992]
G.R. Spedding. The aerodynamics of flight, volume 11 of Advances in Comparative and Environmental Physiology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992. (bibtex: Spedding-1992-AFL).


[Ellington, 1991]
C.P. Ellington. Limitations on Animal Flight Performance. Journal of Experimental Biology, 160:71-91, 1991. (bibtex: Ellington-1991-LAF).


[Norberg, 1990]
U.M. Norberg. Vertebrate flight: mechanics, physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990. (bibtex: Norberg-1990-VFM).
[Schwenk, 1990]
Theodor Schwenk. Sensitive Chaos. Schocken Books, 1990. (pdf) (bibtex: Schwenk-1990-SCH).


[Norberg, 1987]
U. M. Norberg. Wing form and flight mode in bats. In Recent advances in the study of bats, pages 43-56. Cambridge University Press, 1987. (bibtex: Norberg-1987-WFF).
[Norberg and Rayner, 1987]
U. M. Norberg and J. M. V. Rayner. Ecological Morphology and Flight in Bats. Wing Adaptations, Flight Performance, Foraging Strategy and Echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 316:337-419, 1987. (pdf) (bibtex: Norberg-1987-EMF).
[Spedding, 1987]
G.R. Spedding. The wake of a kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in flapping flight. J. exp. Biol., 127:59-78, 1987. (bibtex: Spedding-1987-WKF).


[Spedding, 1986]
G. R. Spedding. The wake of a jackdaw (Corvus monedula) in slow flight. J. exp. Biol., 125:287-307, 1986. (bibtex: Spedding-1986-WJC).


[Ellington, 1984]
C.P. Ellington. The aerodynamics of hovering insect flight. IV. Aerodynamic mechanisms. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 305(1122):1-15, 1984. (bibtex: Ellington-1984-AHI).


[Stevens, 1974]
Peter S. Stevens. Patterns in Nature. Little Brown and Co, 1974. (pdf) (bibtex: Stevens-1974-PNA).


[Vogel, 1967]
S. Vogel. Flight in Drosophila. II. Variations in stroke parameters and wing contour. J. Exp. Biol., 46:383-392, 1967. (bibtex: Vogel-1967-FDV).
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